Periodontology (Gingival Diseases)

Gum diseases range from simple gingivitis to severe infections that cause inflammation and decay of the bone surrounding the tooth root (periodontitis). The gums swell, bleed and recede resulting in the tooth lengthening, your teeth may shift or become lose and you may lose your tooth.

What are the causes of gum diseases?

One of the most common causes of gum diseases is deposits known as microbial dental plaque that accumulate on and between the tooth surface. Plaque that is the same color as the teeth is not visible to the eye, but it can be easily cleaned by brushing teeth and using dental floss as it is soft. If the plaque is not cleaned, harmful substances cause tartar, gum disease and tooth decay over time.

Dentists clean the tartar with the help of special tools. It is very important that you continue to clean your teeth regularly with dental floss and a toothbrush after treatment.

If your gingival recession has progressed, cavities may have occurred due to melting of the alveolar bone, and peridontal operations may be required under local anesthesia to treat bone resorption. In these operations, bio-materials such as membrane and bone graft are used by targeting the regeneration of lost tissues. Check-ups are required once every 3-6 months after the operations.

What are gum diseases?

Gum diseases are serious oral health problems that can be observed at any age and because they are usually painless they can go unnoticed until the final stage. Gum diseases are infectious diseases that affect not the tooth itself, but the tissues surrounding and supporting it. Even if you have no tooth decay, you may even lose your healthy teeth due to gum diseases.


It is the most common type of gum disease. It is caused by microbial dental plaque. Tooth supporting tissues are the fibers that connect the gum, tooth root, jaw bone and the tooth root to the jaw bone and this structure is called “periodontium”. The situations in which the infection affects only the gums are called “gingivitis”. Symptoms of gingivitis are red, swollen, shiny, soft and easy-bleeding gums. Bleeding and bad breath are the most important symptoms. There is no or very little pain in the first period. Therefore, it takes longer to notice. Gingivitis can be treated with the right oral care.


Periodontitis, one of the most common gum problems, affects the root of the tooth, jawbone and the fibers that connect the tooth root to the jaw bone, along with the gum. Since it progresses very slowly, its symptoms are noticed later. Symptoms of periodontitis are bleeding gums, red/bluish-purplish discoloration, gum recession, gum growth, tooth shifting, seperating, lengthening, becoming lose, abscess formation, tenderness and bad breath. Pain is usually accompanied by abscess formation. Infection, loss of the ability to chew and a diseased infrastructure that cannot handle the prosthesis that is going to be built and cannot provide enough support is observed. Diseases affecting the systemic and immune system such as diabetes increase the severity of gingivitis.

Periodontal Diseases

These diseases are the advanced state of periodontitis. These cause bone melting as well as the loss of healthy teeth by receding from the top level that fills the space between the teeth if not treated. These diseases are more common in those who have oral hygiene problems, experience stress and have HIV. They cause severe pain.

Gum abscess and periodontal abscess

Foreign substances sticking into the gum can cause abscess in the gum. Gum abscess causes red gums, swelling, bleeding, and sensitivity. Periodontal abscesses form in untreated cases with advanced bone melting.

Symptoms of gum diseases:

  • Red and sensitive gums
  • Bad breath
  • Bleeding gums during brushing or sudden bleeding
  •  Receding gums
  • Gums that separate from the teeth easily
  • Inflammatory discharge between the teeth and gums
  • Healthy but lose teeth and teeth that shift away from each other
  • A change in the connection between the upper and lower teeth when biting

What are the treatments for gum diseases?

If gum diseases are diagnosed at an early stage, they can be treated by cleaning tartar and providing the necessary oral care. If not treated early, surgical intervention may be required.

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